         
 THE “ZEUS” MACHINE (PRODUCING ENERGY FROM A CONTROLLED FUSION OF ATOMIC NUCLEI) Summary In this project, we will look into the basics, the structure (description) and the operation of the “ZEUS” machine. As we know, various machines for the production of energy from the controlled fusion of
atomic nuclei have been tried for several years. Until now, none of these efforts have achieved the desired result. Conversely, by using the “ZEUS” machine (which we will analyse below), we have much higher odds of achieving the desired result: In other words, to produce energy from the controlled fusion of atomic nuclei. Let¢s now look at the basics of the structure (description) and operation of the “ZEUS” machine.
THE “ZEUS” MACHINE É. STRUCTURE (DESCRIPTION) Let us assume, Fig. 1, that we have a solid metal sphere S with a centre C and a radius R. The metal sphere S is usually made of a very hard metal alloy.         Fig. 1 From the metal sphere S we remove a cone C_{o}, whose angle ö of the apex C is relatively small, e.g. ö = 10^{ï}. Also, the internal walls of cone C_{o} are very smooth.
The outside of sphere S is covered by a strong insulating material (electrically charged), whose thickness is s_{1}. We place sphere S inside a container D_{o}, which is filled with water. Sphere S stands at the bottom of container D_{o} with a base Â_{1}, which is also made from a strong insulating material (electrically charged). Also, a tube T, with length L, connects the sphere S with a particle accelerator Á_{1 }(e.g. a synchrotron).
Between the sphere S and the tube T there is also a strong insulating material (electrically charged), which means there is no electrical contact between the sphere S and the tube T. Finally, sphere S is electrically insulated from the entire device of the machine. The sphere S is the reactor of the “ZEUS” machine. We remove the atmospheric air from the cone C_{o}, the tube T and the accelerator Á_{1. }In addition, within the tube T and at a length l, there are electric fields Å_{1}, Å_{2}, Å_{3}, … which, if properly calibrated, reduce the velocity õ_{1 }of the ions which issue from accelerator Á_{1}. Note: The above reduction in the velocity õ_{1} of the ions, which issue from the accelerator Á_{1} is from value õ_{1} to another, desired value õ_{2} (õ_{2}<õ_{1}), which we consider
necessary in order to achieve an efficient fusion of atomic nuclei. Next, inside cone C_{o} and at the apex C, we place a small quantity of tritium (_{1}H^{3}) in liquid or solid form, (or _{3}Li^{6}) . Let us assume now that d is the diameter of the circular base of the cone of the tritium _{1}H^{3} quantity (which we have placed inside cone C_{o} and at the apex C).
Then, we charge the metal sphere S with a (relatively medium) positive electric charge +Q. The purpose of this positive electric charge +Q is to remove from the metal sphere S (and transfer to the Earth) all free electrons that exist within the metal sphere S. Note: The (relatively medium) positive electric charge +Q (as above) is not fundamental
in the design of the reactor of the “ZEUS” machine. This positive electric charge +Q could be Q = 0 or even –Q. However, with a charge of Q+, the ions of deuterium _{1}H^{2} of beam b (as we will see below), remain ions within cone C_{o}, with a slightly reduced velocity, due to the electric field (of positive electrical charges) that exists within cone C_{o}. Next, we insert a large number of ions (nuclei) of deuterium (_{1}H^{2}) inside the accelerator Á_{1 }and
accelerate them until they gain a high velocity õ_{1}. We now assume that the beam b (of ions (nuclei) of deuterium _{1}H^{2}, which issues from the accelerator Á_{1} at a high velocity õ_{1}) is roughly cylindrical in shape, with a circular diameter crosssection D, (D > d). Also, the density d_{o} of the ions (nuclei) of deuterium _{1}H^{2}, contained within beam b must (preferably) have the highest possible value d_{o}.
Finally, the axis xx΄ of the circular beam b of the ions (nuclei) of deuterium _{1}H^{2} passes from the apex C of cone C_{o} and the middle E of the exit of the accelerator Á_{1}. What we discussed above is the basics of the structure (description) and design of the “ZEUS” machine. ÉÉ. OPERATION Simply put, the “ZEUS” machine operates as follows:
We insert inside the accelerator Á_{1} a large number of ions (nuclei) of deuterium _{1}H^{2 }and accelerate them, until they acquire a high velocity õ_{1}. Note: At this stage, the electric fields Å_{1}, Å_{2}, Å_{3}, … are inactive (out of operation) and we put them into operation only when it becomes necessary to lower velocity õ_{1}. Next, in a very short time t_{a} (e.g. t_{a} = ìsec or t_{a} = nsec), we allow the ions (nuclei) of deuterium _{1}H^{2} (which have gained a high velocity õ_{1} inside the accelerator Á_{1})to
exit the accelerator Á_{1}Note: Time t_{a}, will henceforth be known as action time t_{a}. Thus, from accelerator Á_{1 }issues a beam b of ions (nuclei) of deuterium _{1}H^{2}, which have a high velocity õ_{1} and a (relatively) high density d_{o}. Also, beam b is roughly of cylindrical shape, with a circular diameter cross section D, (D > d). As the above beam b enters cone C_{o}, it will meet the internal walls (of cone C_{o}) by a circular cross section with diameter ÁÂ, (ÁÂ = D). Specifically: a) The central part f_{o} of beam b, which has a circular cross section of diameter d΄ (d΄ = d) will travel “directly” to the cone of tritium _{1}H^{3} (which is placed inside cone C_{o} and apex C). b) The remaining part f_{1} of beam b (which is around the central part f_{o}), after
successive reflections on the internal walls of the cone ABC, will also eventually reach the cone of tritium _{1}H^{3}. Therefore, both the central part f_{o} and the remaining part f_{1} of beam b (of ions (nuclei) of deuterium _{1}H^{2}) will gather, at high velocity õ_{1 }within the cone of tritium _{1}H^{3}. Specifically, the ions (nuclei) of deuterium _{1}H^{2} of the central part f_{o} and the remaining part f_{1} of beam b will gather in a very small area (space) å_{ï}, (å_{ï} → 0) around the apex C and the inside of cone C_{o}.
Thus, if the velocity of the ions (nuclei) of deuterium _{1}H^{2} of beam b has such a value as to overcome the potential barrier of nuclei of tritium _{1}H^{3} (which is placed inside cone C_{o} and apex C), then, in the above very small area (space) å_{ï}, (å_{ï} → 0) we will certainly have: Fusion of the ions (nuclei) of deuterium _{1}H^{2} of beam b with the atomic nuclei of tritium _{1}H^{3}, which is placed inside cone C_{o} and apex C.
Note: If, in order to achieve the above fusion, the velocity õ_{1} of the ions (nuclei) of deuterium _{1}H^{2} of beam b needs to be õ_{2}, (õ_{2} < õ_{1}), then there are two ways of achieving that. a) We can accelerate the ions (nuclei) of deuterium _{1}H^{2} inside the accelerator Á_{1 }until their acquire a velocity of õ_{2}, or b) With the help of electric fields Å_{1}, Å_{2}, Å_{3}, … which exist within tube Ô,
we can reduce the velocity of the ions (nuclei) of beam b from value õ_{1} to value õ_{2}, (õ_{2} < õ_{1}). As we know, the above fusion of atomic nuclei of deuterium _{1}H^{2} of beam b and the atomic nuclei of tritium _{1}H^{3}, which is inside cone C_{o} gives out energy 17,59 MeV, according to the nuclear reaction:
       This energy of
17,59 MeV heats up the metal sphere S and, subsequently, the water contained in the container D_{o}. We ultimately convert the heat of the water into electric power, in the exact same way that we apply to nuclear fission reactors (Uranium, Plutonium).
This concludes our brief description of how the “ZEUS” machine operates. Control and constant operation of the machine In the
“ZEUS” machine, since the nuclear energy produced from the fusion of atomic nuclei of deuterium _{1}H^{2} and tritium _{1}H^{3} needs to be continuous and constant in terms of the time unit t (i.e. the power P of the machine must be constant), this can be achieved in the following way: From a “warehouse” of ions (nuclei) of deuterium _{1}H^{2}, we constantly feed the accelerator Á_{1} with these ions.^{ }Next, at intervals, we direct beams b of ions (nuclei) of deuterium _{1}H^{2},
accordingly and for a very short time t_{a} (action time t_{a}), towards the quantity of tritium _{1}H^{3} (which is inside cone C_{o} and close to the apex C). Thus, every time we direct a new beam b towards the quantity of tritium _{1}H^{3}, we will have a respective production of energy from the fusion of atomic nuclei of deuterium _{1}H^{2} and tritium _{1}H^{3}. Therefore, in this way, we will
have a controlled and constant production of energy at time unit t from the “ZEUS” machine. Finally, by using the “ZEUS” machine, a nuclear energy production station could have one or more machines, either operating simultaneously or in a predefined order, i.e. when one machine ceases to operate, the next is set into operation. Conclusion
In summary of all that we discussed in this project, we have established the following: The most fundamental and most important part of the structure and operation of the “ZEUS” machine is the design of its reactor, namely the metal sphere S, Fig. 1. The rationale of the reactor¢s design is as follows: Inside cone C_{o} (whose angle ö of the apex C is small) and close to the apex C, we place a small quantity of one of the two materials for fusion (e.g. tritium _{1}H^{3}).
Next, we “bombard” the motionless target of the quantity of tritium _{1}H^{3} with a dense beam of ions, of high kinetic energy E, of the second material for fusion (deuterium _{1}H^{2}). Based, therefore, on the design of the reactor of the “ZEUS” machine, the following will take place: In a very small space å_{ï} (å_{ï} → 0, which is inside cone C_{o} and very close to the apex C) we will observe:
A great energy E will concentrate and be trapped in a very small space å_{ï} (å_{ï} → 0), resulting in the fusion of the atomic nuclei of tritium _{1}H^{3} with the atomic nuclei of deuterium _{1}H^{2}, and thus producing nuclear energy from this fusion. As we can see, the rationale of the reactor¢s design plays a critical role in the efficient fusion of the atomic nuclei of deuterium _{1}H^{2} and tritium _{1}H^{3}, using the “ZEUS” machine.
A notable observation In addition, another way to achieve the fusion of the atomic nuclei of deuterium _{1}H^{2} and tritium _{1}H^{3}, is the following: We insert in the accelerator Á_{1}, roughly an equal quantity of ions of deuterium _{1}H^{2} and tritium _{1}H^{3} and accelerate them until they acquire a very high velocity õ_{1}.
Next, and for a very short time t_{a} (action time t_{a}), we insert this beam b of the above ions of deuterium _{1}H^{2} and tritium _{1}H^{3} into the cone C_{o}, inside which, and at the apex C, there is no quantity of tritium _{1}H^{3}, or _{3}Li^{6} . This way, a great energy (of the ions of deuterium _{1}H^{2} and tritium _{1}H^{3} of beam b) will be concentrated
and trapped in a very small space å_{ï} (å_{ï} → 0). Subsequently, this will certainly result in the fusion of the atomic nuclei of deuterium _{1}H^{2} and tritium _{1}H^{3} of beam b within space å_{ï} (å_{ï} → 0). This way of achieving fusion (f the atomic nuclei of deuterium _{1}H^{2} and tritium _{1}H^{3} of beam b), as described above, will henceforth be known as adjoint method for fusion
. Conversely, the way we described above, Fig. 1 (where a quantity of tritium _{1}H^{3} is placed inside cone C_{o} and at the apex C) will henceforth be known as non adjoint method for fusion. Both ways, namely the non adjoint method for fusion and the adjoint method for fusion, are just as effective in achieving the fusion of atomic nuclei of deuterium _{1}H^{2} and tritium _{1}H^{3}, by using the
“ZEUS” machine. In addition, a third (and very interesting) way of achieving the fusion of atomic nuclei by using the “ZEUS” machine is the following: We place a very small sphere A (the size of a pinhead, or smaller), containing deuterium and tritium, inside cone C_{o} and apex C, Fig. 1. Then, for a very short time t_{a} (action time), we direct a beam b of high power Laser beams to the sphere A, through cone C_{o}.
In this case, within the space å_{ï} (å_{ï} → 0) the fusion of atomic nuclei of deuterium and tritium will certainly take place. This way of achieving fusion will henceforth be known as fusion of atomic nuclei with Laser beams. Finally, the three ways of achieving the fusion of atomic nuclei of deuterium and tritium, as described above, i.e.:  The non adjoint method for fusion

The adjoint method for fusion, and
 Fusion with Laser beams
are the three basic ways of achieving the fusion of atomic nuclei of deuterium and tritium by using the “ZEUS” machine. ÍÏTE: The adjoint method for fusion used in the “Zeus” Machine (other than the case of Deuterium – Tritium ions mentioned above) can be employed in the exact same way in the case of Hydrogen – Hydrogen ions. Epilogue Based on what we discussed in this project, we have given a basic description of the design of the “ZEUS” machine, i.e. its structure (description) and the way it operates. The “ZEUS” machine has several advantages compared to the various other fusion machines that have been tried so far, and whose result was negative. Given today¢s technology, the structure and operation of the “ZEUS” machine
could be turned into reality. The “ZEUS” machine is also advantageous in terms of cost, compared to other fusion machines. However, the experimental research and necessary improvements that could be made on the “ZEUS” machine, will (I believe) give us the desired result, namely to produce energy from the controlled fusion of atomic nuclei. Regardless, however, of what we discussed in this project, time and experiments will show us whether we could,
ultimately, achieve the desired result. Let us hope, then, that one day the “ZEUS” machine will be tried out in practice, and that we will have the desired result, for the good of mankind and the protection of the environment. Copyright 2010: Christos A. Tsolkas tsolkas1@otenet.gr Christos A. Tsolkas Agrinio, December 21^{st}, 2010     © Copyright 2001 Tsolkas Christos. Web design by Wirenet Communications  
