
                  THE ELECTROGRAVITATIONAL THEORY PART ΙΙΙ THE ETHEROSPHERE OF CELESTIAL BODIES As discussed earlier (See Electrogravitational Theory Part I), the free positive and negative electrins in the universe constitute the Ether, i.e. the “dark matter”, as it is commonly termed today. Ether is matter’s fifth state (solids, fluids, gases, plasma, Ether). In addition, as it is known, according to the Electrogravitational Theory: a.
Electrins (positive and negative) are of an electric nature, and b. Electricity exhibits properties of attraction and inertia.
As a consequence), the free positive and negative electrins in the universe (i.e. Ether) are attracted by various celestial bodies, thus, forming around them an “Etherosphere”, Fig. 1, (as occurs, for example, with the air’s molecules making up the atmosphere around the Earth).        
fig. 1 Therefore, according to the postulates of the Electrogravitational Theory, a free (positive or negative) electrin of Ether is always attracted by a celestial body by a force F, namely:  
     where Μ_{ο}_{ }is the celestial body’s pure mass,
r is the distance of the electrin from the celestial body’s center of mass, q^{o} is the absolute value of the electric charge of the positive or negative electrin (q^{o} > 0), and is the electrogravitational constant of electricity, which is calculated by conducting the
Cavendish experiment, (See Electrogravitational Theory, Part ΙΙ). We will hereafter refer to Relation (1) as the “basic relation of the Etheropshere of celestial bodies”. PROPERTIES OF THE ETHEROSPHERE OF CELESTIAL BODIES According to basic relation (1), the Etherospheres of celestial bodies have the following properties: PROPERTIES 1.
The Etherosphere of celestial bodies is denser when close to their surface and becomes thinner when moving away to a greater height. 2. Moreover, relation (1) shows that the greater the mass of the celestial body, the denser its Etherosphere. Thus, the Earth’s Etherosphere, for instance, is less dense than the Etherosphere of the Sun or of a white dwarf or a black hole. 3.
The Etherosphere of every celestial body is inseparably linked with the celestial body and follows this body’s course in the universe. 4. The free positive and negative electrins of the universe which do not form part of the Etherospheres of celestial bodies will be hereafter referred to as “Free Ether” of the universe. Therefore, the entire universe is full of “Free Ether”. 5.
Ether is the ideal “electric fluid” and as a result, all celestial bodies and their Etherosphere meet infinitesimal resistance when moving in the “Free Ether” of the universe. 6. The boundaries between the Etheropshere of celestial bodies and “Free Ether” are not clearly marked. As a result of this, at the farthest boundaries, at the point where the Etherosphere ends and the “Free
Ether” of the universe begins, there exists a zone wherein prevails a turbulent movement both of the electrins of the celestial bodies’ Etherosphere and of the electrins of the universe’s “Free Ether”. This zone will be referred to as “turbulent zone” of the Etherosphere of celestial bodies. 7.Assuming that ρ_{ο} is the density of the Etherosphere of a celestial body on its surface, then density, ρ at
a height h from its surface will be ρ < ρ_{ο} and is obtained by the following relation:         where k is a positive number, whose value is calculated experimentally. INDICATIONS OF THE EXISTENCE OF THE CELESTIAL BODIES’ ETHEROSPHERE 1. The curvature of light As mentioned earlier, the various celestial bodies of a very large mass, such as the
Sun, white dwarfs, black holes, etc, are surrounded by a dense Etherosphere. Additionally, because Ether is the bearer of all electromagnetic waves (and hence of light also), when a light ray from a star Α, (Fig. 2), enters the Etherosphere of this celestial body, it meets ever denser layers of the Etherosphere, a fact causing this ray to curve (i.e. it undergoes a sort of “Etheric refraction”, and an observer Ο sees star Α in position . 
     
fig. 2 Apparently, this very cause accounts for the phenomenon of «gravitational lenses” which has been observed in the universe. Conclusion The phenomenon of curvature of light rays exists in the universe and is exclusively attributed to the existence of the Etherosphere surrounding celestial bodies and not to the curvature of space – time as the Theory of Relativity wrongly asserts.
2. The redshift phenomenon According to the Electrogravitational Theory, the speed of light c is not constant in the universe, yet this speed c, is always a function of density ρ of Ether in which light is propagated. More specifically, the greatest the density ρ of Ether, the lower the speed of light. Let us assume (Fig. 3) that we transmit a beam of rays upwards by means of a transmitter Α
from the surface of the Earth.      
   fig. 3 In this case, according to the Electrogravitational Theory, the following relation will apply: : 
                   where C_{ο}
is the speed of light on the surface of the Earth, ν_{ο} is the frequency of the rays γ and λ_{ο} is their wavelength on the surface of the Earth. Similarly, at a height h, above the surface of the Earth, we place a receiver Β. In this case the following relation will apply for the beam of rays γ:   
    where C_{1}_{ }is the speed light at the height h, ν_{1}_{ }is the frequency_{ }of rays
γ and λ_{1} their wave length, at height h.Relations (3) and (4) give:         Relation (5) will be referred to as “Fundamental relation” of the redshift phenomenon. In relation (5), as it is known, c_{1} > c_{o}. Now, if we also measure experimentally the wavelengths λ_{ο} and λ_{1}
, then relation (5) yields:        
Conclusion The redshift phenomenon exists in nature and is exclusively attributed to the change in the density of the Etherosphere surrounding celestial bodies. Consequently, this phenomenon is not due to the equivalence principle as the General Theory of Relativity erroneously holds. 3. The negative result of the Michelson – Morley experiment As mentioned above, the Etherosphere of celestial bodies is dragged along with these bodies during their motion in the universe. As a result of this, the Michelson – Morley experiment yields indeed a negative result. However, the negative result of the Michelson – Morley experiment does not imply in any case that Ether does not exist in nature and that celestial bodies are not surrounded by their Etherosphere. On the contrary, the negative result of the
Michelson – Morley experiment confirms, in the way it was conducted, the existence of Ether and of the Etherosphere around the Earth. For, if we carry out the Michelson – Morley experiment on a vehicle (e.g. a train, aircraft, satellite, etc) moving at a velocity V relative to the Earth, then it will yield a positive result. Obviously, this proves that Ether exists in nature and that the Earth is surrounded by its Etherosphere. Note:
Experiments such as the above, which are truly interesting, are proposed on www.tsolkas.gr THE SPEED OF LIGHT INSIDE MATERIAL BODIES ELECTRIC FIELDS AND MAGNETIC FIELDS Let us assume that ρ_{ο} is the density of the universe’s Ether (i.e. of the “Free Ether”) away from gravitational, electric and magnetic fields and that c is the speed of light inside it.
a. The density ρ of Ether inside a material body, e.g. water is: ρ > ρ_{ο }(6) b. The density ρ_{Ε}_{ }of Ether inside an electric field is: ρ_{Ε} > ρ_{ο }(7) c. The density ρ_{Μ} of Ether inside a magnetic field is: ρ_{Μ } > ρ_{ο }(8)
Therefore, for the above three cases: a. The speed of light c' inside water is: c' < c (9) b. The speed of light c_{E} inside an electric field is: c_{E }< c (10) γ. The speed of light c_{Μ}_{ }inside a magnetic field is: c_{Μ }< c (11)
The above lead to the following conclusion: Conclusion The speed of light inside material bodies, electric and magnetic fields is slower than the speed of light c (in vacuum) that the Theory of Relativity accepts. The speed of light is always a function of the density ρ of Ether. Experimental proof
After everything analyzed above in order to establish that the speed of light c decreases inside electric or magnetic fields, we will perform the following experiment: Experiment We use the exact same experimental apparatus (Fig. 4) employed in the famous Michelson – Morley experiment and we carry out the experiment in the following two phases:     
   fig. 4 Phase Ι: With the interferometer being motionless and without rotating it, we emit a monochromatic light from a light source S. In this case, light and dark interference fringes can be seen inside dioptre D. Phase II:
In this phase, the light ray corresponding to arm OA of the interferometer, comes into a powerful electric or magnetic field of intensity B. The magnetic field Β may be constant or alternating. With the interferometer being motionless and without rotating it, we emit a monochromatic light from a light source S. In this case, light and dark interference fringes can be seen again inside dioptre D.
Therefore, when we conduct this experiment in these two phases, we will observe the following: Inside the dioptre, the light and dark fringes which have been formed during phase II, have shifted relative to the light and dark fringes formed in phase I of this experiment. Apparently, this occurs because the speed of light c' inside the electric or magnetic field (Fig. 4) is slower than the speed of light c outside these fields (c'< c).
This phenomenon is a further proof of the existence of Ether in nature. The result of this experiment, i.e. the deceleration of light inside powerful electric or magnetic fields, has never been recorded to this day by modern Physics. This is a simple experiment and can be easily conducted in any university or other laboratory. Note: Instead of light, the above experiment may be also conducted with microwaves, by measuring the corresponding times.
Conclusion The light decelerates inside powerful electric or magnetic fields, that is, the speed of light c decreases when light moves inside powerful electric or magnetic fields. Important Remark According to the EGT and after everything discussed above, we reach the following conclusions: 1.
Under no circumstances is the speed of light c a constant of Nature, as the Special Theory of Relativity erroneously holds. The speed of light c is variable and its values depends on a) the density of Ether wherein the light is propagated and b) The observer (if the latter is at rest or in motion). 2. There are velocities of particles in the universe greater than the speed of light c. VELOCITY OF
PARTICLES INSIDE ELECTRIC OR MAGNETIC FIELDS Let us assume that (Fig. 5) there is a source of fast neutrons S and a very powerful field of intensity Β. 
               
     fig.5
Α. According to classical Physics: a. When the magnetic field Β does not exist (Β = 0), a neutron will cover a length L at a time t_{1}, i.e.
        where V_{1} is the velocity of the neutron (V_{1} = constant). b. When the magnetic field Β exists (Β > 0), the neutron will cover length L at the same time t_{1}, according to relation (12).
Β. According to the EGT. In this case, when the magnetic field Β exists (Β > 0) and is very powerful, the density of Ether ρ inside it is great, since density of Ether ρ is proportional to intensity B. As a result, the fast moving neutron meets great resistance F_{R} from the dense Ether that exists inside the magnetic field and its velocity decreases from V_{1} to V_{2}, (V_{2} < V_{1}). Therefore, the time t_{2} that the neutron takes to cover length L will be:
       
and because V_{2} < V_{1}, relations (12) and (13) yield: t_{2} > t_{1} (14) if Δt = t_{2} – t_{1} (15) then, relations (14) and (15) give:        We will refer to this phenomenon, i.e. the time difference Δt > 0 given by
relation (16), as “time hysteresis”. Under the Theory of Relativity, this phenomenon is wrongly interpreted, in that the rest mass mo of a body increases with its velocity. Obviously the Theory of Relativity ignores the resistance F_{R} displayed by the “dense” Ether which exists inside powerful magnetic or electric fields, e.g. accelerators, and which causes the deceleration of particles that accelerate inside such fields. The phenomenon of time
hysteresis is observed to a great extent in accelerators where the intensity of electric and magnetic fields is particularly great and the velocities of the accelerating particles are very high. Therefore, during the particles’ motion inside accelerators, if one takes into account the resistance F_{R} of Ether to these moving particles, it is instantly proven that the mass does not increase at all in relation to speed, as the Theory of Relativity erroneously holds through the following formula:
     
   This is another error of the Special Theory of Relativity. Conclusion A particle moving at a very high speed inside powerful electric or magnetic fields
(e.g. inside an accelerator) undergoes, during its motion, a resistance F_{R}, which is attributed to the great density of Ether that exists inside the accelerator’s electric and magnetic fields. Apparently, the greater the intensity of the electric or magnetic fields, the greater the density of Ether existing inside these fields. VARIOUS OTHER PHENOMENA The Casimir Effect According to the EGT, the
Casimir effect is due to the existence of Ether’s positive and negative electrins found between the plates of this experimental device and which interact with electric forces, the positive and negative electrins of these plates. ELECTROGRAVITATIONAL WAVES According to the EGT, all radiations existing in nature are divided in two categories only: a. Electromagnetic radiations (electromagnetic waves), and b.
Gravitational radiations (gravitational waves)
Other kinds of radiation, except those defined under (a) and (b) above, do not exist in nature. MAXWELL’S ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY As it is well known, electromagnetic waves are satisfactorily interpreted by Maxwell’s Electromagnetic Theory. Maxwell’s Electromagnetic Theory is accurate but not complete, for it does not take into consideration the
material composition and the properties of Ether wherein electromagnetic waves are propagated. Thus, Maxwell’s Electromagnetic Theory fails for instance to answer the following basic question: What is a displacement current and what causes it? According to the EGT, the answer to this question is the following: The displacement current is exclusively due to the electric current generated by Ether’s free electrins (positive and negative) that are in motion
between the plates of the condenser in the commonly found electrical circuit producing electromagnetic waves. ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES As it is wellknown, the following relation applies for electromagnetic waves: 
   
   where c is the speed of light and v, λ are their frequency and wavelength respectively. Finally, electromagnetic waves are transverse waves and have the properties of the latter. THE PHOTON According to the EGT, the photon is not a particle moving in space at a speed c
and having waveparticle properties, as modern Physics holds. Definition: The photon is made up of a very large number of Ether’s positive and negative electrins, which vibrate as a result of the action of an electric charge inside a period Τ, when the electric charge performs e.g. a harmonic oscillation at a frequency ν and with oscillation width a. a. The photon’s particle properties (the Compton effect) are the particle properties of positive and negative electrins making up the photon. b. The photon’s wave properties are the wave properties of Ether. GRAVITATIONAL WAVES Let us assume that there is a Newtonian mass m_{u}: 
  
                 where q = q'. This Newtonian mass m_{u} is e.g. a small sphere of copper of radius r = 10 cm. As it is commonly known, this Newtonian mass m_{u} is electrically neutral.
Let us also assume that this sphere of copper (Fig. 6) performs e.g. a harmonic oscillation at a frequency ν and with oscillation width a.     
  fig. 6 In this case, according to classical Physics, this sphere of copper does not emit any radiation out in its surrounding space. On the contrary, however, under the EGT, this sphere of copper emits out in its surrounding space gravitational radiation in the form of gravitational waves.
This phenomenon is interpreted as follows: According to the EGT, pure mass m_{ο} of copper (Relation 18) consists of gravitons. These gravitons attract the positive and negative electrins of Ether by electrogravitational forces. Consequently, when the sphere of copper performs a harmonic oscillation by attracting the Ether’s positive and negative electrins, it brings about a periodic disturbance to these electrins which results in the emission of
gravitational radiation in the form of gravitational waves. Gravitational waves (as opposed to electromagnetic ones) are transverse waves for which the following relation applies:         where c is the speed of light and v, λ are their frequency and wavelength respectively. In other words, gravitational waves move at the speed of light c inside a homogeneous Ether.
At this point, it should be stressed that the gravitational mass m_{ο}_{ }of copper will be referred to as gravitational charge to which the above gravitational waves are due. Apparently, the greater the gravitational charge m_{ο}, the greater the intensity E_{G} of gravitational waves. Thus, gravitational waves (just like electromagnetic ones) curve when passing through the Etherosphere of a celestial body of a very large
mass, e.g. a white dwarf, a black hole, etc. Finally, gravitational waves exist in the universe and are formed at a large scale when great gravitational charges m_{ο} exist, moving at high speeds, such as in supernova explosions or star collapsing occurring in the universe. Example: As it is well known, 1 cm^{3} from the mass of a white dwarf weighs about 150 tn. If we take, for instance, 1 m^{3 }
from the mass^{ }of a white dwarf (which is obviously electrically neutral) and we cause it to oscillate at a frequency v e.g. v = 10^{4} Hz and with an oscillation width a = 10 m, then this mass will emit out in space gravitational radiation of intensity E_{G} in the form of gravitational waves. UNIFIED WAVES Let us assume that there is a nonNewtonian mass (Fig. 7) m_{u}
:        
where q < q', e.g. a negatively charged sphere of copper of radius r = 10 cm. Moreover, let us assume (Fig. 7) that this sphere of copper performs a harmonic oscillation at a frequency ν and with an oscillation width a.        fig. 7 In this case, according to Maxwell’s Electromagnetic Theory, this negatively charged sphere of copper will emit out in
space electromagnetic radiation in the form of electromagnetic waves. These electromagnetic waves are attributed to the fact that the sphere’s negative electric charge     
 
 attracts the Ether’s positive electrins and at the same time repels the negative ones. The disturbance of positive and negative electrins provides, however, the structure of electromagnetic waves where Ε and Β are the intensity of the electric and magnetic field respectively in the electromagnetic wave. As it is commonly known, electromagnetic waves are transverse waves for which relation c = ν · λ applies.
2) However, as mentioned above, the gravitational charge m_{o} of the negatively charged sphere of copper simultaneously emits out in space gravitational radiation of intensity E_{G} in the form of gravitational waves, for which relation (19) applies. Conclusion When a negatively or positively charged mass m_{u} performs an oscillation at a frequency v and with an
oscillation width a, it emits out in space electromagnetic and gravitational radiation at the same time, in the form of electromagnetic and gravitational waves. The electromagnetic and gravitational waves emitted by the negatively charged sphere of copper will constitute a unified wave. Apparently, the electromagnetic and gravitational waves making up a unified wave are of the same phase. Therefore: 
  
Unified wave = electromagnetic wave + gravitational wave 


  
This signifies that Maxwell’s Equations of the Electromagnetic Theory should be supplemented and further include the gravitational waves which are attributed to the gravitational charge m_{o} of nonNewtonian masses such as, the electron, the proton, a positively or negatively charged mass m_{u}, etc. The resulting equations will be referred to as unified equations of the GravitoElectromagnetic Theory (G.E.M. – Theory).
In essence, the equations of the G.E.M. – Theory are equations of “unified fields” which have never been put forward by modern Physics so far. Copyright 2007: Christos A. Tsolkas Christos A. Tsolkas
April 2007 
