
     THE ELECTROGRAVITATIONAL THEORY PART Ι THE NATURE OF MATTER 1. Hylions The matter that exists in the universe, from the tiniest elementary particle to the largest body, consists of three mere particles (Fig. 1): a. Gravitons, denoted by m^{0}. b. Positive electrins, denoted by +q^{0}, and
c. Negative electrins, denoted by –q^{0}.     
   In other words, matter consists of these three fundamental particles m^{0}, +q^{0}, –q^{0} and of no other at all. Therefore, what is known today as Strings, Super strings, quarks, etc, does not exist in nature. The latter are simply concoctions of the mind which in no case do they represent the natural reality.
Thus, these three particles, i.e. the graviton m^{0}, the positive electrin +q^{0} and the negative electrin –q^{0}, are the fundamental elements making up matter, and hereafter we will refer to them as hylions. 2. Properties of hylions 1. Hylions are indivisible and unchangeable and are in constant motion in the universe. 2. The number of
hylions in the universe remains at all times steady, while one hylion is never converted into another one. 3. a. The graviton m^{0} is electrically neutral and is the quantum of gravity. Gravity is a quantized dimension. b. The positive electrin +q^{0} is positively charged and is the quantum of positive electricity. Positive electricity is a quantized dimension. c. The negative electrin –q^{0} is negatively
charged and is the quantum of negative electricity. Negative electricity is a quantized dimension. 4. Electricity (positive or negative) exists in the form of particles and exhibits properties of attraction and inertia. 5. Properties: a. Gravitons always attract each other via gravitational forces. b. Heteronymic electrins attract each other, while homonymic electrins repel each other via electric forces. c.
Gravitons always attract both positive and negative electrins via electrogravitational forces. 6. Every material body, e.g. a stone, a planet, the sun, a black hole, etc, or an elementary particle, e.g. an electron, a proton, a neutron, etc, is an aggregate of gravitons, positive electrins and negative electrins making up this body. 7.
a. We will call the positive and negative electrins which are blocked in the material bodies or in the elementary particles “blocked electrins” of the universe. b. Conversely, free positive and negative electrins of which there is a surplus in the universe, make up Ether or the “dark matter” as it is collectively called today. We will call the energy of the universe’s “free electrins”, i.e. of Ether, energy of Ether or “dark energy”, as it
is called today. 8. The density of the universe’s free electrins (positive and negative), i.e. of Ether (the “dark matter”), is not constant in the universe. Yet, in certain areas of the universe where large masses exist, e.g. white dwarfs, pulsars, black holes, galaxies, etc, this density is greater due to attractive electrogravitational forces by which these masses attract the universe’s free (positive and negative) electrins. This phenomenon has
tremendous consequences on Cosmology and in particular on the motions of the galaxies and the expansion of the universe. 9. a. Matter has only particle properties and never matterwave properties as Wave Mechanics accepts. Wave mechanics phenomena, such as interference, diffraction, experiment of two slots, etc, are attributed to the existence of the universe’s free electrins, i.e. of Ether. Specifically, in the above phenomena, dark fringes are free electrins oscillating with
the minimum oscillation amplitude, while light fringes are free electrins oscillating with the maximum oscillation amplitude. b. Hylions are entirely governed by the law of cause and effect and as a consequence all natural phenomena are based on the causeandeffect relationship. 10. All phenomena of Wave Mechanics and Quantum Mechanics rest entirely on the laws of cause and effect which govern hylions. It is just that the outcome of these phenomena can be
described mathematically (that is, quantitatively) also by applying probability mathematical laws. However, under no circumstances does this fact countermand the ultimate causeandeffect principle which exists in nature. 11. The space time of the Theory of Relativity is purely a mathematical concoction and under no circumstances does it represent natural reality. The alltoofamiliar material universe has only three dimensions and is utterly governed by the law of cause and effect.
It is probable that other material universes also exist, with more dimensions, which may not be utterly ruled by the causeandeffect relationship. Perhaps these material universes are governed by natural laws that vary from those known to us today in connection with our own universe.
ELECTROGRAVITATIONAL MECHANICS DEFINITIONS Let us consider a material body Α, for example a stone, which we divide in its hylions. Then:
If Ν_{1} is the number of positive electrins +q^{0}, Ν_{2} is the number of negative electrins –q^{0} and Ν_{3} is the number of gravitons m^{0} which are contained in body Α, the following relations will apply: 
   +q = +q^{0} . N_{1} –q΄ = –q^{0} . N_{2} m_{0} = m^{0} . N_{3}
 (1) 

   In relations (1), +q is the total positive electric charge contained in body Α. Similarly, –q΄ is the total negative electric charge contained in body Α. As regards m_{0}_{,} we will call it “gravitational mass” or “pure mass” contained in body A.
A body’s pure mass m_{0} is always a positive number. Apparently, if body Α is electrically neutral, then in relations (1) Ν_{1} = Ν_{2} and number Ν_{3} will be Ν_{3} = 0 or Ν_{3} > 0. In this case, we will call the electrically neutral mass of this body A “Newtonian mass”. Definition: On the basis of relations (1), we will call the aggregate m_{u} = m_{0} + +q + –q΄ (2) “unified mass” m_{u} of body Α, where q ≠ q΄. Therefore, according to the above, given that q = q΄, a
“Newtonian mass” of relation (2) will yield: m_{u} = m_{0} + 2q (3) where q = positive number. Definition: On the basis of relation (2), we will call number 
   “material constant” f_{A} of body Α. If body Α is a “Newtonian mass”, then relation (4) will yield:

                                      where q = positive number.
Evidently, the material constant of any body is always a positive number. ABOUT MASSES According to the Electrogravitational Theory (EGT), two masses m_{u} and m_{u}΄, namely: m_{u} = m_{0} + +q_{1} + –q_{1}΄ m_{u}΄= m_{0}΄ + +q_{2} + –q_{2}΄
are: a. Equal, when the following relation applies:         For instance, in the case of two pieces of copper, each measuring 1 cm^{3 }in volume, their masses will be equal. b. Similar, when the following relation applies:         where λ is a positive number, λ ≠ 1.
So, in the case of two pieces of copper, measuring 1 cm^{3 }and 10cm^{3 }in volume respectively, their masses will be similar. c. Electrogravitationally equivalent (EG equivalent), when the following relation applies: m_{0} + +q_{1} + –q_{1}΄ = m_{0}΄ + +q_{2} + –q_{2}΄ Note: In the cases referred to above (a), (b) and (c), number m_{0} is always a positive number, since gravitons which make up the pure mass are electrically neutral particles, as mentioned earlier on. THE MATERIAL CONSTANT OF BODIES 1. The material constant of the Hydrogen atom. Based on the foregoing, the material constant f_{H} of the Hydrogen atom is the following:
      
where m_{0},_{p} and m_{0},_{e} are the pure mass of the proton and the neutron respectively and q is the total (absolute value) electrical charge of the Hydrogen atom. Considering now that the electron’s pure mass m_{0},_{e} is negligible, relation (6) yields, with the proton’s pure mass m_{0},_{p},_{ }the following:
       
Relation (7) gives us the material constant f_{H} of the Hydrogen atom.
REMARK: At this point, we need to stress that e.g. the proton may consist of a number Ν of negative electrins –q^{0} and of a number Ν+1 of positive electrins +q^{0}, therefore, the algebraic aggregate of these numbers will yield the proton’s positive electrical charge.
Consequently, a major concern of Elementary Particle Physics which requires further research at a theoretical and experimental level is of how many gravitons m^{0}, negative electrins –q^{0} and positive electrins +q^{0} does a proton consist. Evidently, under no circumstances does this fact affect the postulates of the EGT. 2. The material constant of chemical elements
Let us assume that we have a chemical element with mass number M and atomic number Z. As it is wellknown, the number Ν of its nucleus’s neutrons will be: Ν = Μ – Ζ (8) Therefore, based on the above, the material constant f_{A} of this chemical element’s atom will be:
       
where m_{0},_{n} , m_{0},_{p} , m_{0},_{e} are the pure mass of the neutron, proton and electron respectively, and q is the total (absolute value) electric charge of the proton. Considering now that the neutron’s pure mass m_{0},_{n} is by great approximation equal to the proton’s pure mass m_{0},_{p} namely:
m_{0},_{n} = m_{0},_{p} (10) then relation (9) will yield:         Relation (11) gives us the material constant of a chemical
element’s atom, when we know its mass number Μ, its atomic number Ζ and the material constant f_{H} of the Hydrogen atom. At this point, it must be pointed out that the material constant of chemical elements usually varies from one element to another. However, there are chemical elements which have the same material constant, such as _{2}Ηe^{4} and _{14}Si^{28}, etc. THE FUNDAMENTAL POSTULATES OF THE EGT POSTULATES The fundamental postulates of the EGT are the following: Postulate: Two gravitons m^{0} and m^{0}, lying at a distance r from each another, are always attracted via a force F:
 
      where G_{0} is a constant which we will call “pure constant of universal attraction”.
Postulate: If we apply a force F on a graviton m^{0} for a time dt, then the following relation will apply:
   
    where v is the velocity and a the acceleration that the graviton will develop at this time dt.
Postulate:
Two gravitons m^{0} and m^{0} attract each another via equal and opposite forces, i.e.:
     
  Postulate: Two electrins, either heteronymic or homonymic, lying at a distance r from one another, are attracted or repelled via a force F, i.e.:
       where q^{0} is the electric charge (absolute value) of the electrin, (q^{0} > 0).
In relation (15) the plus (+) sign stands for attraction, while the minus (–) sign stands for repellation.
Postulate: If we apply a steady force F on a positive or negative electrin ±q^{0}, for a time dt, then the following relation will apply:
   
    where q^{0} is the electric charge (absolute value) of the electrin (q^{0} > 0), and v and a
are the velocity and acceleration respectively that this electrin will develop at time dt. Number μ_{0} is a constant which we will call “inertial constant of electricity”.
Postulate: Two electrins, either heteronymic or homonymic, lying at a distance r from one another, are attracted or repelled via equal and opposite forces:
  
     Postulate: A graviton m^{0} and an electrin (positive or negative) lying at a distance r from one another, are always attracted via a force F, namely:
     
   where q^{0} is the absolute value of the electrin’s electric charge, q^{0} > 0 and τ_{0} is a constant which we will call “electrogravitational constant”.
Postulate: A graviton m^{0} and an electrin (positive or negative) always attract one another via equal and opposite forces, namely:

   then Relation (21) yields: 
   where, we will call constant k_{0} in Relation (23) the “constant of the pure massto electric charge ratio” Relation (23) is a fundamental one and plays a major role in the EGT, since it links gravity to electricity. THE FUNDAMENTAL RELATIONS OF CONSTANTS μ_{0}, k_{0}, G_{0} and τ_{0} We saw earlier that if we apply a force F to an electric charge q (positive or negative) for a time dt, this charge will develop a velocity v and an acceleration a and the following relation will apply:

   Thus, on the basis of relation (22), relation (26) yields: 
   Relations (22), (23), (26) and (27) are of great importance and reveal how the EGT constants μ_{0}, k_{0}, G_{0} and τ_{0} are associated with one another. The fundamental constants of the EGT As stated above, the basic constants of the EGT are the following:
G_{0} = pure constant of universal attraction τ_{0} = electrogravitational constant μ_{0} = inertial constant of electricity k_{0} = constant of the pure masstoelectric charge ratio
REVIEWING NEWTON’S THREE LAWS FUNDAMENTAL LAWS OF THE EGT
1. NEWTON’S FIRST LAW (Law of gravitation) Proof Let us assume (Fig. 3) that Α and Β are two bodies of Newtonian mass Μ_{u} and m_{u} respectively, namely: 
   Μ_{u} = M_{0} + +Q + –Q m_{u} = m_{0} + +q + –q  (28) 

   Masses Μ_{u} and m_{u} have not the same material composition (e.g. mass Μ_{u} is made of aluminum and mass m_{u} is made of copper). Furthermore, masses Μ_{u} and m_{u} are considered to be point masses, and let us assume that they are lying at a distance r from each other.

   2. Pure mass Μ_{0} and the positive electric charge +q are always attracted to one another via equal and opposite forces, that is: 
   6. The positive electric charge +Q and the negative electric charge –q are always attracted to one another via equal and opposite forces, that is:

   7. Τhe negative electric charge –Q and pure mass m_{0} are always
attracted to one another via equal and opposite forces, that is: 
   By adding relations (29), (30),... (37), we observe that the two Newtonian masses M_{u} and m_{u} are attracted to one another via equal and opposite forces F and F΄,
which are the following: 
   Therefore, the attractive force F between the two M_{u} and m_{u} will be:

   If now f_{Α} and f_{Β} are the material constants of bodies Α and Β,
then according to what is already known to us, the following will apply: 
 
 or 
 
   Substituting Q and q from relations (42) and (43) in relation (39), gives: 
   with : 
 
   relation (44) yields the following: 
  
where f_{A} is the material constant of Copper. Graph of the factor of universal attraction G_{F} By considering in relation (45) that f_{A} is the material constant of e.g. the Earth, i.e. f_{A} = a = constant, then the factor of universal attraction G_{F} for various material bodies i, (i = 1,2,3,...) which are attracted to the Earth and whose material constant is f_{i} will be: 
   Therefore, the graph of relation (46.2) is a hyperbola that represents Fig. 3 (a). As observed in Fig. 3 (a), when the material constant f_{i} of the various bodies which are attracted to the Earth increases, then the corresponding factor of universal attraction G_{F} for these bodies diminishes. This conclusion, as discussed below, is important in connection with the free fall of bodies. CONCLUSION Let us examine now the conclusions that emanate from everything explained above in connection with the first law of universal attraction of the EGT. These conclusions are the following: a. Relation (46) reveals that the force F by which the two material bodies Α and Β attract one another always depends on their material composition, and this force F is never independent of the bodies’ material composition, as Newton states in his first law of universal gravitation.
That is, the universal gravitational constant G in Newtonian Mechanics is not at all a universal constant for every single material body, but on the contrary is a factor G_{F}_{ }which depends_{ }each time on the material composition of bodies attracting one another, in other words, it depends on their material constants f_{A }and f_{B}.
Consequently, in Newton’s first law of universal gravitation, G would indeed be a universal constant if all bodies in the universe had the same material composition, i.e. if they had the same material constant. This, however, does not occur in nature, since there are differences in material composition between, for instance, the Sun and the Earth, a white dwarf and a black hole, etc. Therefore, according to the EGT, Newton’s first law
of universal gravitation does not hold, because it fails to represent natural reality both at a qualitative and quantitative level. b. Evidently, the fact that the value of Newton’s universal gravitational constant G approximates the value of universal attraction factor G_{F}, i.e. G ≈ G_{F}, is quite misleading, and as a result Newton’s first law is accepted as accurate. The latter, however, is a great mistake, since there is
a qualitative and quantitative difference between Newton’s first law of universal gravitation and the equivalent law of the EGT (Relation (46) referred to above). c. Moreover, the pure mass, this fundamental physical dimension  does not exist in Newton’s first law of universal gravitation.
Conversely, in the first law of universal gravitation of the EGT Relation (046, the pure mass exists and plays a major role in the attraction between bodies. 2. NEWTON’S SECOND LAW (Law of inertia) Proof Let there be a Newtonian mass m_{u}, i.e.: m_{u} = m_{0} + +q + –q (47)
An inertial force F acts now on this Newtonian mass m_{u} for a time dt. According to the EGT, during force’s F acting on mass m_{u}, the following postulate applies: Postulate: When we cause an inertial force F to act on a Newtonian mass m_{u}, relation (47), for a time dt
, then this inertial force F is divided in three forces F_{1}, F_{2}, and F_{3} having the same moment with it. These three forces F_{1}, F_{2}, and F_{3} cause the pure mass m_{0}, the positive electric charge +q and the negative electric –q to move, and for these forces the following relation applies:

  
where m_{u} is the unified mass of the Newtonian mass m_{u}. CONCLUSION According to the EGT, relation (50) expresses the second law (law of inertia). Therefore, because in relation (50) the acceleration a does not depend on the material
composition of the body, this signifies that if we cause the same force F to act, over the same time dt, on two bodies of different material composition, e.g. aluminum and copper, which have the same unified Newtonian mass m_{u}, then these two bodies will develop the same acceleration in accordance with relation (50). Consequently, while in the first EGT law of attraction given by relation (46) the attractive force F depends on the
material composition of the attracting bodies, in the second law of inertia force F acting on the body does not depend on the latter’s material composition. 3. NEWTON’S THIRD LAW (Law of reciprocal action) Proof According to the EGT, Newton’s third law i.e. the law of reciprocal action results from relations (29),
(30), ... (37). Adding these relations, gives: 
             CONCLUSIONS ON THE THREE FUNDAMENTAL LAWS OF THE EGT The conclusions derived
from the three fundamental laws of the EGT, relation (46), relation (50) and relation (51) referred to above, are the following:
a. As it is wellknown in Classical Mechanics, Newton’s three laws have been formulated as postulates (i.e. they cannot be proven mathematically). Contrarily, however, according to the EGT, Newton’s three laws are proven based on the postulate of the EGT and assume from a physical standpoint a precise
mathematical form, as given by the above relations (46), (50) and (51). This fact, that is, the mathematical proof of Newton’s three laws the law of universal gravitation, the law of inertia and the law of reciprocal action based on the postulate of the EGT constitutes the cornerstone of the theoretical edifice of the EGT. b. Having formulated the three fundamental laws of the EGT –relations (46), (50) and (51)–, we can
now develop a new Mechanics, i.e. Electrogravitational Mechanics, which is equivalent to Newtonian Mechanics . In Electrogravitational Mechanics, the factor of attraction G_{F}_{,} which apparently substitutes for the universal gravitational constant G in the various mathematical processes, plays a major role. Thus, no matter how insignificant the above substitution seems (i.e. the universal gravitational constant G being replaced by EGT’s factor of universal attraction G_{F }
), it truly has determinative consequences and will lead us to revise the knowledge we have obtained since Newton’s era. c. Finally, because according to the EGT electricity exhibits properties of attraction and inertia (a fact which has never been recorded to this day in Physics), this implies that the inertial constant of electricity Μ_{0}, as well as the electrogravitational constant τ_{0}, equally play a major role in
Electrogravitational Mechanics. VARIOUS PHYSICAL DIMENSIONS OF THE EGT 1. Electrogravitational weight a. In relation (46), i.e:
  
      
 
   intensity of the electrogravitational field of Newtonian mass Μ_{u} = Μ_{0} + +Q + –Q, at a distance r.
b. We will call W_{0}, i.e.:

   
   Electrogravitational weight of Newtonian mass m_{u} = m_{0} + +q + –q. As observed in relation (54), because number g_{F} is a function of the material composition of the bodies that are attracted to one another (given that g_{F} is a function of G_{F}, See relation (45)), this signifies that according tot the EGT if e.g. we take 1 Kgr of aluminum and 1 Kgr of copper (based on the established method of measuring these masses), then these two equal masses, which are attracted to the Earth at this height r will not have the same weight as occurs in the alltoofamiliar Newtonian Mechanics, but based on the EGT will have different weight according to relation (54).
The above conclusion constitutes a basic difference between Newtonian Mechanics and EGT Mechanics. NOTABLE REMARK Let us examine the case of the Earth. As it is wellknown, according to Newtonian Mechanics, intensity g of the Earth’s gravitational field at a distance h from its centre, is expressed by the following formula:

   
   where G is the universal gravitational constant and Μ is the Earth’s mass.
Therefore, in the above relation (54.1), if Μ and h are known, then intensity g of the Earth’s gravitational field is also known and arithmetically defined. Conversely, however, according to the EGT, this conclusion of Newtonian Mechanics does not apply because: As it is wellknown, intensity g_{F} of the Earth’s electrogravitational field is given by: 
                                Yet, because factor of attraction G_{F} equals:         where f_{A} is the material constant of the Earth and f_{B} is the material constant of the body that is attracted to the Earth at a height h, then the above relations (54.2) and (54.3) yield:    
    Thus, in order to know the value of g_{F} we should also know the material constant f_{B} of the body that is attracted to the Earth at a height h.
If, however, this body does not exist at a height h, then relation (54.4) is meaningless and the value of g_{F} is inexistent and indeterminate. Therefore, according to the EGT, we are never in a position to know a priori the intensity of the Earth’s gravitational field at a distance h (as is the case in Newtonian Mechanics), since we must obligatorily define a priori the body to which we are referring, which is found at a distance h and is being attracted to the Earth.
So, only if we place a body at a distance h, can we calculate a posteriori the intensity g_{F} of the Earth’s electrogravitational field. As it can be observed, this is also another basic difference between Newtonian Mechanics and the EGT. The above conclusion will hereafter be called the “electrogravitational principle of indetermination”. 2. Electrogravitational center of mass
Let us assume (Fig. 4) that m_{0} is a pure mass, +Q a positive electric charge and –q a negative electric charge, with the following coordinates:         m_{0} (x_{1}, y_{1}, z_{1}), +Q (x_{2}, y_{2}, z_{2}) and –q (x_{3}, y_{3}, z_{3}).
In order to calculate the coordinates x_{c}, y_{c}, z_{c} of the electrogravitational centre of mass C of the three bodies m_{0}, +Q and –q (Fig.4), we proceed as follows: Calculation: Based on relation (23) (i.e. the relation of equivalence between the pure mass and the electric charge)         Based on relation (55), the positive electric charge +Q (Fig. 4) is equivalent to a pure mass m_{0}΄:     
   where Q is a positive number. Similarly, the negative electric charge –q (Fig. 4) is equivalent to a pure mass m_{0}΄΄:         where q is a positive number.
Therefore, if in Fig. 4 we substitute the positive electric charge +Q for mass m_{0}΄ from relation (56) and the negative electric charge –q for mass m_{0}΄΄ from relation (57), then by applying the alltoofamiliar method we can calculate the centre of mass C of the three masses m_{0}, m_{0}΄ and m_{0}΄΄, whose coordinates are m_{0} (x_{1}, y_{1}, z_{1}), m_{0}΄ (x_{2}, y_{2}, z_{2}) and m_{0}΄΄
(x_{3}, y_{3}, z_{3}) respectively. These coordinates x_{c}, y_{c}, z_{c} are the soughtfor coordinates of the electrogravitational centre of mass C of the three bodies m_{0}, +Q and –q from Fig. 4. Here, it should be pointed out that the shape of bodies m_{0}, +Q and –q may assume various geometric forms (circle, linear part, etc),
while their initial geometric form remains the same throughout the entire process described above. PROBLEM OF THREE BODIES Let us assume (Fig. 4) that m_{1}, m_{2}, m_{3} are three masses (as known to us from Newtonian Mechanics). Mass m_{1} is made of Aluminum, mass m_{2} of Silver and mass m_{3} of Gold.
       These three masses are at rest at time t = 0, and their coordinates are m_{1} (x_{1}, y_{1}, z_{1}), m_{2} (x_{2}, y_{2}, z_{2}) and m_{3} (x_{3}, y_{3}, z_{3}). We now let these three masses move under the influence of the force of universal attraction. After a time t > 0 and on the
basis of the classical solution given to the “threebody problem”, these three masses will respectively follow three curved orbits C_{1}, C_{2}, C_{3}. What we are seeking is: According to Newtonian Mechanics, what kind of orbits are C_{1}, C_{2}, C_{3}_{ }? According to the EGT laws, what kind of orbits are C_{1}΄, C_{2}΄, C_{3}΄?
What is the difference between orbits C_{1}, C_{2}, C_{3} and C_{1}΄, C_{2}΄, C_{3}΄?
Obviously, this is a very difficult problem, but is also a typical example which allows us to observe the difference that exists in various Physics problems between Newtonian Mechanics and EGT Mechanics.
Application: The above problem can be applied in the case of the Sun – Earth – Moon, where f_{S}, f_{E}, f_{M} are the material constants of the Sun, Earth and Moon respectively. THE FORCES OF NATURE All forces of Nature are divided in two categories: 1. Real forces, and 2. Fictitious forces.
Real forces are attributed to the interaction (attractive and repulsive) of hylions, something which does not occur with fictitious forces. Among nature’s real forces are for instance the gravitational, electric, electrogravitational, magnetic, electromagnetic forces, etc. Conversely, fictitious forces are only the inertial forces, e.g. the centrifugal force, the Coriolis force, the force that appears in a
vehicle moving with linear acceleration, the force applied by our hand to a body A, etc. The fundamental property between real and fictitious forces is that real forces are never converted into fictitious forces and vice versa. In other words, real and fictitious forces always remain qualitatively unchangeable and one is never converted into the other under any circumstances and for any observer whatsoever. Therefore, real and
fictitious forces are never equivalent. This implies that the fields of real forces are never equivalent to the fields of fictitious forces (that is, of the inertial forces), as Einstein erroneously holds, according to the “Equivalence Principle” of the General Theory of Relativity. Finally, real forces are an immanent property of the bodies themselves (and especially of gravitons, positive and negative electrins making up bodies) and is not a property of the curved
spacetime, as Einstein erringly asserts in the General Theory of Relativity. ENERGY AND MOMENTUM 1. Kinetic energy Let us assume that m_{u}_{ }is a Newtonian mass: m_{u} = m_{0} + +q + –q (58)
a. When Newtonian mass m_{u} moves under the influence of inertial forces, then its kinetic energy Κ will be:      
  
where v is the velocity of this mass. b. Contrarily, now, when this Newtonian mass m_{u} moves under the influence of real forces, then its kinetic energy is: 

  
   where v_{G} is the velocity of the electrogravitational centre of mass of the Newtonian mass m_{u}. So, if for example a Newtonian mass m_{u}_{ }is in free fall inside the gravitational field of
the Earth, its kinetic energy is given by relation (60). As it can be observed, relations (59) and (60) which express the kinetic energy of a mass differ from the corresponding relations of Newtonian Mechanics. Thus, by the EGT, in order to calculate the kinetic energy of a body A, we must know a priori whether these forces which cause body A to move are inertial or real forces. Apparently, in the case of real forces,
in order to calculate the kinetic energy of body A, we will always have as reference the velocity v_{G} of the electrogravitational centre of mass of this body Α. We will hereafter call this process “tidal process”. 2. Potential energy. Let us assume that there are two Newtonian masses: 
   Μ_{u} = M_{0} + +Q + –Q m_{u} = m_{0} + +q + –q  (61) 

   lying at a distance h from one another.
In this case, the potential energy U of the system of these two masses m_{u} and M_{u} on the basis of what we discussed earlier is:

   where h is the distance between the electrogravitational centre of mass m_{u} and the electrogravitational centre of mass M_{u}.
Number G_{F} is the factor of universal attraction (relation (45)) between these two attracting masses m_{u}_{ }and M_{u}. 3. Conservation of energy Let us assume that there are two Newtonian masses: 
   Μ_{u} = M_{0} + +Q + –Q m_{u} = m_{0} + +q + –q  (63) 

   lying at a distance h from one another.
Also, relative to an inertial observer (Ο) and at time t=0 these two masses are at rest. We now let these two masses move under the influence of the force of universal
attraction. Thus, the principle of conservation of energy will apply for these two masses as they move (t >0), namely: Κ (kinetic energy) + U (potential energy) = Ε (total energy) (64) 
   or 
 
   where v_{G} is the velocity of the electrogravitational centre of mass of the Newtonian mass m_{u}. V_{G} is the velocity of the electrogravitational centre of mass of the Newtonian mass M_{u}_{,} and h΄ is the distance between them at time t >0, where h΄< h.
According to the EGT, relation (65) expresses the principle of the conservation of energy of the two Newtonian masses m_{u} and Μ_{u}. 4. Conservation of momentum Similarly, the principle of conservation of momentum will apply for the two Newtonian masses m_{u} and Μ_{u} mentioned above, i.e.: 
   
   According to the EGT, relation (66) expresses the principle of the conservation of momentum of the two Newtonian masses m_{u} and Μ_{u}.
5. nBody system The kinetic energy, potential energy, the principle of conservation of energy and the principle of conservation of momentum discussed above with regard to the two Newtonian masses m_{u} and Μ_{u} can also be applied in the same way to a closed system consisting of n bodies, where f_{i} (i =1,2,3,...n) are the material constants of these bodies.
The material constants f_{i} may be the same (if the n bodies have the same material composition) or different (if the n bodies are of a different material composition). Therefore, once again we can detect the difference in final result between Newtonian Mechanics and EGT Mechanics. FREE FALL OF BODIES Let us assume (Fig. 5) that M_{u} is the Newtonian mass of the Earth:
Μ_{u} = M_{0} + +Q + –Q (67) We consider that the Earth is motionless relative to an inertial frame of reference O.XYZ. We now take three equal masses A, B, C e.g. 1 Kgr _{14}Si^{28}, 1 Kgr _{13}Al^{27} and 1 Kgr _{79}Au^{197} which we place at a height h, at rest, above the surface of the Earth.

             
     We let these three equal masses Α, Β, C fall freely inside the Earth’s gravitational field.
The question that is being raised is the following: At what velocity do these three equal masses A, B, C reach the surface of the Earth? Here is the answer to this question: According to the EGT and by applying the principle of conservation of energy referred to above, the velocities v_{G}΄, v_{G}΄΄, v_{G}΄΄΄ at which these three masses A, B, C will reach the surface of the Earth are respectively the following:
            where v_{G}΄ is the velocity of _{14}Si^{28
}v_{G}΄΄ is the velocity of _{13}Al^{27 }v_{G}΄΄΄ is the velocity of _{79}Au^{197 }(v_{G}΄, v_{G}΄΄, v_{G}΄΄΄, are the velocities of the electrogravitational centre of mass of bodies A, B, C), and g_{F}΄ is the intensity of the Earth’s electrogravitational field at height h for _{14}Si^{28
}g_{F}΄΄ is the intensity of the Earth’s electrogravitational field at height h for _{13}Al^{27 }g_{F}΄΄΄ is the intensity of the Earth’s electrogravitational field at height h for _{79}Au^{197}As it is well known, on the basis of relation (11), the material constant f_{A} of _{14}Si^{28} is:        Similarly, the material constant f_{B} of _{13}Al^{27} is:
    
   and the material constant f_{C} of _{79}Au^{197} is: 
             
     
where f_{H} is the material constant of the Hydrogen atom. As it can be observed in relations (71), (72), (73):         Therefore, based on relation (45)    
    where G_{F}΄ is the factor of universal attraction, Earth – _{14}Si^{28} (76)
G_{F}΄΄ is the factor of universal attraction, Earth – _{13}Al^{27} (77) G_{F}΄΄΄ is the factor of universal attraction, Earth – _{79}Au^{197} (78) Moreover, on the basis of relation (53) and relations (76), (77) and (78)         Thus, from relation (79) and relations (68), (69) and (70) we obtain:
      
Consequently, based on relation (80) it can be observed that of the three equal masses A, B, C (Fig. 5) the first that will reach the surface of the Earth is the mass of _{14}Si^{28}, the second is the mass of _{13}Al^{27} and the third is the mass of _{79}Au^{197}. Therefore, after everything analyzed above, the following basic conclusion is drawn: Conclusion According to the EGT, the velocity at which bodies fall inside the gravitational field of the Earth depends on the material composition of these bodies. Evidently, this conclusion clashes with Newtonian Mechanics which states that the velocity of bodies falling inside the Earth’s gravitational field is independent of the material composition of these bodies.
The above conclusion is of major importance and has vast consequences on modern Physics, since it points to the following: a. The result of Galileo’s experiment (experiment conducted from the Tower of Pisa) is utterly wrong, and b. The “Equivalence Principle” of the General Theory of Relativity proves to be beyond any doubt an erroneous principle of physics. ELECTROGRAVITATIONAL UNIT SYSTEM
The EGT uses the Electrogravitational unit system as the measurement system of various physical dimensions. The basic dimensions of the EGS, are: Pure mass m_{0} Length ℓ Time t Electric charge q
Pure mass m_{0} is measured in gr_{0} (grams of pure mass); length ℓ is measured in cm, time t is measured in sec and electric charge q is measured in EGS units of electric charge. Thus, a Newtonian mass m_{u} is measured in gr_{0}. It should be noted that 1 gr_{0} of pure mass is the amount of pure mass contained in 1 cm^{3} of pure mass contained in 1 cm^{3} of liquid hydrogen.
Finally, based on the relations of the fundamental postulates of the EGT referred to above, one can find in the EGS unit system the units of other physical dimensions, such as force (dyn_{0}), work (erg_{0}), etc, as well as the units of the various EGT constants k_{0}, τ_{0}, G_{0}, μ_{0} mentioned earlier. EPILOGUE
The theoretical part of the EGT has been developed based on what has been discussed above (postulates, Laws, conclusions, etc). If experimental research demonstrates the accuracy of the above theoretical conclusions, then beyond any doubt the entire science of physics since Galileo’s time to this day must be rewritten by resting on the new foundations laid by the EGT. Copyright 2007: Christos A. Tsolkas Christos A. Tsolkas
March 17, 2007     © Copyright 2001 Tsolkas Christos. Web design by Wirenet Communications  
