THE ELECTROGRAVITATIONAL THEORY
THE NATURE OF MATTER
The matter that exists in the universe, from the tiniest elementary particle to the largest body, consists of three mere particles (Fig. 1):
a. Gravitons, denoted by m0.
b. Positive electrins, denoted by +q0, and
c. Negative electrins, denoted by –q0.
In other words, matter consists of these three fundamental particles m0, +q0, –q0 and of no other at all. Therefore, what is known today as Strings, Super strings, quarks, etc, does not exist in nature. The latter are simply concoctions of the mind which in no case do they represent the natural reality.
Thus, these three particles, i.e. the graviton m0, the positive electrin +q0 and the negative electrin –q0, are the fundamental elements making up matter, and hereafter we will refer to them as hylions.
2. Properties of hylions
1. Hylions are indivisible and unchangeable and are in constant motion in the universe.
2. The number of
hylions in the universe remains at all times steady, while one hylion is never converted into another one.
3. a. The graviton m0 is electrically neutral and is the quantum of gravity. Gravity is a quantized dimension.
b. The positive electrin +q0 is positively charged and is the quantum of positive electricity. Positive electricity is a quantized dimension.
c. The negative electrin –q0 is negatively
charged and is the quantum of negative electricity. Negative electricity is a quantized dimension.
4. Electricity (positive or negative) exists in the form of particles and exhibits properties of attraction and inertia.
a. Gravitons always attract each other via gravitational forces.
b. Heteronymic electrins attract each other, while homonymic electrins repel each other via electric forces.
Gravitons always attract both positive and negative electrins via electrogravitational forces.
6. Every material body, e.g. a stone, a planet, the sun, a black hole, etc, or an elementary particle, e.g. an electron, a proton, a neutron, etc, is an aggregate of gravitons, positive electrins and negative electrins making up this body.
a. We will call the positive and negative electrins which are blocked in the material bodies or in the elementary particles “blocked electrins” of the universe.
b. Conversely, free positive and negative electrins of which there is a surplus in the universe, make up Ether or the “dark matter” as it is collectively called today.
We will call the energy of the universe’s “free electrins”, i.e. of Ether, energy of Ether or “dark energy”, as it
is called today.
8. The density of the universe’s free electrins (positive and negative), i.e. of Ether (the “dark matter”), is not constant in the universe.
Yet, in certain areas of the universe where large masses exist, e.g. white dwarfs, pulsars, black holes, galaxies, etc, this density is greater due to attractive electrogravitational forces by which these masses attract the universe’s free (positive and negative) electrins.
This phenomenon has
tremendous consequences on Cosmology and in particular on the motions of the galaxies and the expansion of the universe.
9. a. Matter has only particle properties and never matter-wave properties as Wave Mechanics accepts.
Wave mechanics phenomena, such as interference, diffraction, experiment of two slots, etc, are attributed to the existence of the universe’s free electrins, i.e. of Ether.
Specifically, in the above phenomena, dark fringes are free electrins oscillating with
the minimum oscillation amplitude, while light fringes are free electrins oscillating with the maximum oscillation amplitude.
b. Hylions are entirely governed by the law of cause and effect and as a consequence all natural phenomena are based on the cause-and-effect relationship.
10. All phenomena of Wave Mechanics and Quantum Mechanics rest entirely on the laws of cause and effect which govern hylions.
It is just that the outcome of these phenomena can be
described mathematically (that is, quantitatively) also by applying probability mathematical laws.
However, under no circumstances does this fact countermand the ultimate cause-and-effect principle which exists in nature.
11. The space time of the Theory of Relativity is purely a mathematical concoction and under no circumstances does it represent natural reality.
The all-too-familiar material universe has only three dimensions and is utterly governed by the law of cause and effect.
It is probable that other material universes also exist, with more dimensions, which may not be utterly ruled by the cause-and-effect relationship.
Perhaps these material universes are governed by natural laws that vary from those known to us today in connection with our own universe.
Let us consider a material body Α, for example a stone, which we divide in its hylions. Then:
If Ν1 is the number of positive electrins +q0, Ν2 is the number of negative electrins –q0 and Ν3 is the number of gravitons m0 which are contained in body Α, the following relations will apply:
+q = +q0 . N1
–q΄ = –q0 . N2
m0 = m0 . N3
In relations (1), +q is the total positive electric charge contained in body Α.
Similarly, –q΄ is the total negative electric charge contained in body Α. As regards m0, we will call it “gravitational mass” or “pure mass” contained in body A.
A body’s pure mass m0 is always a positive number.
Apparently, if body Α is electrically neutral, then in relations (1) Ν1 = Ν2 and number Ν3 will be Ν3 = 0 or Ν3 > 0.
In this case, we will call the electrically neutral mass of this body A “Newtonian mass”.
Definition: On the basis of relations (1), we will call the aggregate
mu = |m0| + |+q| + |–q΄| (2)
“unified mass” mu of body Α, where q ≠ q΄.
Therefore, according to the above, given that q = q΄, a
“Newtonian mass” of relation (2) will yield:
mu = m0 + 2q (3)
where q = positive number.
Definition: On the basis of relation (2), we will call number
“material constant” fA of body Α.
If body Α is a “Newtonian mass”, then relation (4) will yield:
where q = positive number.
Evidently, the material constant of any body is always a positive number.
According to the Electrogravitational Theory (EGT), two masses mu and mu΄, namely:
mu = |m0| + |+q1| + |–q1΄|
mu΄= |m0΄| + |+q2| + |–q2΄|
a. Equal, when the following relation applies:
For instance, in the case of two pieces of copper, each measuring 1 cm3 in volume, their masses will be equal.
b. Similar, when the following relation applies:
where λ is a positive number, λ ≠ 1.
So, in the case of two pieces of copper, measuring 1 cm3 and 10cm3 in volume respectively, their masses will be similar.
c. Electrogravitationally equivalent (EG equivalent), when the following relation applies:
|m0| + |+q1| + |–q1΄| = |m0΄| + |+q2| + |–q2΄|
Note: In the cases referred to above (a), (b) and (c), number m0 is always a positive number, since gravitons which make up the pure mass are electrically neutral particles, as mentioned earlier on.
THE MATERIAL CONSTANT OF BODIES
1. The material constant of the Hydrogen atom.
Based on the foregoing, the material constant fH of the Hydrogen atom is the following:
where m0,p and m0,e are the pure mass of the proton and the neutron respectively and q is the total (absolute value) electrical charge of the Hydrogen atom.
Considering now that the electron’s pure mass m0,e is negligible, relation (6) yields, with the proton’s pure mass m0,p, the following:
Relation (7) gives us the material constant fH of the Hydrogen atom.
REMARK: At this point, we need to stress that e.g. the proton may consist of a number Ν of negative electrins –q0 and of a number Ν+1 of positive electrins +q0, therefore, the algebraic aggregate of these numbers will yield the proton’s positive electrical charge.
Consequently, a major concern of Elementary Particle Physics which requires further research at a theoretical and experimental level is of how many gravitons m0, negative electrins –q0 and positive electrins +q0 does a proton consist.
Evidently, under no circumstances does this fact affect the postulates of the EGT.
2. The material constant of chemical elements
Let us assume that we have a chemical element with mass number M and atomic number Z.
As it is well-known, the number Ν of its nucleus’s neutrons will be:
Ν = Μ – Ζ (8)
Therefore, based on the above, the material constant fA of this chemical element’s atom will be:
where m0,n , m0,p , m0,e are the pure mass of the neutron, proton and electron respectively, and q is the total (absolute value) electric charge of the proton.
Considering now that the neutron’s pure mass m0,n is --by great approximation-- equal to the proton’s pure mass m0,p namely:
m0,n = m0,p (10)
then relation (9) will yield:
Relation (11) gives us the material constant of a chemical
element’s atom, when we know its mass number Μ, its atomic number Ζ and the material constant fH of the Hydrogen atom.
At this point, it must be pointed out that the material constant of chemical elements usually varies from one element to another.
However, there are chemical elements which have the same material constant, such as 2Ηe4 and 14Si28, etc.
THE FUNDAMENTAL POSTULATES OF THE EGT
The fundamental postulates of the EGT are the following:
Postulate: Two gravitons m0 and m0, lying at a distance r from each another, are always attracted via a force F:
where G0 is a constant which we will call “pure constant of universal attraction”.
Postulate: If we apply a force F on a graviton m0 for a time dt, then the following relation will apply:
where v is the velocity and a the acceleration that the graviton will develop at this time dt.
Two gravitons m0 and m0 attract each another via equal and opposite forces, i.e.:
Postulate: Two electrins, either heteronymic or homonymic, lying at a distance r from one another, are attracted or repelled via a force F, i.e.:
where q0 is the electric charge (absolute value) of the electrin, (q0 > 0).
In relation (15) the plus (+) sign stands for attraction, while the minus (–) sign stands for repellation.
Postulate: If we apply a steady force F on a positive or negative electrin ±q0, for a time dt, then the following relation will apply:
where q0 is the electric charge (absolute value) of the electrin (q0 > 0), and v and a
are the velocity and acceleration respectively that this electrin will develop at time dt.
Number μ0 is a constant which we will call “inertial constant of electricity”.
Postulate: Two electrins, either heteronymic or homonymic, lying at a distance r from one another, are attracted or repelled via equal and opposite forces:
Postulate: A graviton m0 and an electrin (positive or negative) lying at a distance r from one another, are always attracted via a force F, namely:
where q0 is the absolute value of the electrin’s electric charge, q0 > 0 and τ0 is a constant which we will call “electrogravitational constant”.
Postulate: A graviton m0 and an electrin (positive or negative) always attract one another via equal and opposite forces, namely:
then Relation (21) yields:
where, we will call constant k0 in Relation (23) the “constant of the pure mass-to- electric charge ratio”
Relation (23) is a fundamental one and plays a major role in the EGT, since it links gravity to electricity.
THE FUNDAMENTAL RELATIONS OF CONSTANTS μ0, k0, G0 and τ0
We saw earlier that if we apply a force F to an electric charge q (positive or negative) for a time dt, this charge will develop a velocity v and an acceleration a and the following relation will apply:
Thus, on the basis of relation (22), relation (26) yields:
Relations (22), (23), (26) and (27) are of great importance and reveal how the EGT constants μ0, k0, G0 and τ0 are associated with one another.
The fundamental constants of the EGT
As stated above, the basic constants of the EGT are the following:
G0 = pure constant of universal attraction
τ0 = electrogravitational constant
μ0 = inertial constant of electricity
k0 = constant of the pure mass-to-electric charge ratio
REVIEWING NEWTON’S THREE LAWS
FUNDAMENTAL LAWS OF THE EGT
1. NEWTON’S FIRST LAW (Law of gravitation)
Let us assume (Fig. 3) that Α and Β are two bodies of Newtonian mass Μu and mu respectively, namely:
Μu = |M0| + |+Q| + |–Q|
mu = |m0| + |+q| + |–q|
Masses Μu and mu have not the same material composition (e.g. mass Μu is made of aluminum and mass mu is made of copper).
Furthermore, masses Μu and mu are considered to be point masses, and let us assume that they are lying at a distance r from each other.
2. Pure mass Μ0 and the positive electric charge +q are always attracted to one another via equal and opposite forces, that is:
6. The positive electric charge +Q and the negative electric charge –q are always attracted to one another via equal and opposite forces, that is:
7. Τhe negative electric charge –Q and pure mass m0 are always
attracted to one another via equal and opposite forces, that is:
By adding relations (29), (30),... (37), we observe that the two Newtonian masses Mu and mu are attracted to one another via equal and opposite forces F and F΄,
which are the following:
Therefore, the attractive force F between the two Mu and mu will be:
If now fΑ and fΒ are the material constants of bodies Α and Β,
then according to what is already known to us, the following will apply:
Substituting Q and q from relations (42) and (43) in relation (39), gives:
relation (44) yields the following:
where fA is the material constant of Copper.
Graph of the factor of universal attraction GF
By considering in relation (45) that fA is the material constant of e.g. the Earth, i.e. fA = a = constant, then the factor of universal attraction GF for various material bodies i, (i = 1,2,3,...) which are attracted to the Earth and whose material constant is fi will be:
Therefore, the graph of relation (46.2) is a hyperbola that represents Fig. 3 (a).
As observed in Fig. 3 (a), when the material constant fi of the various bodies which are attracted to the Earth increases, then the corresponding factor of universal attraction GF for these bodies diminishes.
This conclusion, as discussed below, is important in connection with the free fall of bodies.
Let us examine now the conclusions that emanate from everything explained above in connection with the first law of universal attraction of the EGT.
These conclusions are the following:
a. Relation (46) reveals that the force F by which the two material bodies Α and Β attract one another always depends on their material composition, and this force F is never independent of the bodies’ material composition, as Newton states in his first law of universal gravitation.
That is, the universal gravitational constant G in Newtonian Mechanics is not at all a universal constant for every single material body, but on the contrary is a factor GF which depends each time on the material composition of bodies attracting one another, in other words, it depends on their material constants fA and fB.
Consequently, in Newton’s first law of universal gravitation, G would indeed be a universal constant if all bodies in the universe had the same material composition, i.e. if they had the same material constant.
This, however, does not occur in nature, since there are differences in material composition between, for instance, the Sun and the Earth, a white dwarf and a black hole, etc.
Therefore, according to the EGT, Newton’s first law
of universal gravitation does not hold, because it fails to represent natural reality both at a qualitative and quantitative level.
b. Evidently, the fact that the value of Newton’s universal gravitational constant G approximates the value of universal attraction factor GF, i.e. G ≈ GF, is quite misleading, and as a result Newton’s first law is accepted as accurate. The latter, however, is a great mistake, since there is
a qualitative and quantitative difference between Newton’s first law of universal gravitation and the equivalent law of the EGT (Relation (46) referred to above).
c. Moreover, the pure mass, --this fundamental physical dimension -- does not exist in Newton’s first law of universal gravitation.
Conversely, in the first law of universal gravitation of the EGT --Relation (046--, the pure mass exists and plays a major role in the attraction between bodies.
2. NEWTON’S SECOND LAW (Law of inertia)
Let there be a Newtonian mass mu, i.e.:
mu = |m0| + |+q| + |–q| (47)
An inertial force F acts now on this Newtonian mass mu for a time dt.
According to the EGT, during force’s F acting on mass mu, the following postulate applies:
Postulate: When we cause an inertial force F to act on a Newtonian mass mu, relation (47), for a time dt
, then this inertial force F is divided in three forces F1, F2, and F3 having the same moment with it.
These three forces F1, F2, and F3 cause the pure mass m0, the positive electric charge +q and the negative electric –q to move, and for these forces the following relation applies:
where mu is the unified mass of the Newtonian mass mu.
According to the EGT, relation (50) expresses the second law (law of inertia).
Therefore, because in relation (50) the acceleration a does not depend on the material
composition of the body, this signifies that if we cause the same force F to act, over the same time dt, on two bodies of different material composition, e.g. aluminum and copper, which have the same unified Newtonian mass mu, then these two bodies will develop the same acceleration in accordance with relation (50).
Consequently, while in the first EGT law of attraction given by relation (46) the attractive force F depends on the
material composition of the attracting bodies, in the second law of inertia force F acting on the body does not depend on the latter’s material composition.
3. NEWTON’S THIRD LAW (Law of reciprocal action)
According to the EGT, Newton’s third law --i.e. the law of reciprocal action-- results from relations (29),
(30), ... (37). Adding these relations, gives:
CONCLUSIONS ON THE THREE FUNDAMENTAL LAWS OF THE EGT
The conclusions derived
from the three fundamental laws of the EGT, relation (46), relation (50) and relation (51) referred to above, are the following:
a. As it is well-known in Classical Mechanics, Newton’s three laws have been formulated as postulates (i.e. they cannot be proven mathematically).
Contrarily, however, according to the EGT, Newton’s three laws are proven based on the postulate of the EGT and assume from a physical standpoint a precise
mathematical form, as given by the above relations (46), (50) and (51).
This fact, that is, the mathematical proof of Newton’s three laws --the law of universal gravitation, the law of inertia and the law of reciprocal action-- based on the postulate of the EGT constitutes the cornerstone of the theoretical edifice of the EGT.
b. Having formulated the three fundamental laws of the EGT –relations (46), (50) and (51)–, we can
now develop a new Mechanics, i.e. Electrogravitational Mechanics, which is equivalent to Newtonian Mechanics .
In Electrogravitational Mechanics, the factor of attraction GF, which apparently substitutes for the universal gravitational constant G in the various mathematical processes, plays a major role.
Thus, no matter how insignificant the above substitution seems (i.e. the universal gravitational constant G being replaced by EGT’s factor of universal attraction GF
), it truly has determinative consequences and will lead us to revise the knowledge we have obtained since Newton’s era.
c. Finally, because according to the EGT electricity exhibits properties of attraction and inertia (a fact which has never been recorded to this day in Physics), this implies that the inertial constant of electricity Μ0, as well as the electrogravitational constant τ0, equally play a major role in
VARIOUS PHYSICAL DIMENSIONS OF THE EGT
1. Electrogravitational weight
a. In relation (46), i.e:
intensity of the electrogravitational field of Newtonian mass Μu = |Μ0| + |+Q| + |–Q|, at a distance r.
b. We will call W0, i.e.:
Electrogravitational weight of Newtonian mass mu = |m0| + |+q| + |–q|.
As observed in relation (54), because number gF is a function of the material composition of the bodies that are attracted to one another (given that gF is a function of GF, See relation (45)), this signifies that --according tot the EGT-- if e.g. we take 1 Kgr of aluminum and 1 Kgr of copper (based on the established method of measuring these masses), then these two equal masses, which are attracted to the Earth at this height r will not have the same weight as occurs in the all-too-familiar Newtonian Mechanics, but based on the EGT will have different weight according to relation (54).
The above conclusion constitutes a basic difference between Newtonian Mechanics and EGT Mechanics.
Let us examine the case of the Earth. As it is well-known, according to Newtonian Mechanics, intensity g of the Earth’s gravitational field at a distance h from its centre, is expressed by the following formula:
where G is the universal gravitational constant and Μ is the Earth’s mass.
Therefore, in the above relation (54.1), if Μ and h are known, then intensity g of the Earth’s gravitational field is also known and arithmetically defined.
Conversely, however, according to the EGT, this conclusion of Newtonian Mechanics does not apply because:
As it is well-known, intensity gF of the Earth’s electrogravitational field is given by:
Yet, because factor of attraction GF equals:
where fA is the material constant of the Earth and fB is the material constant of the body that is attracted to the Earth at a height h, then the above relations (54.2) and (54.3) yield:
Thus, in order to know the value of gF we should also know the material constant fB of the body that is attracted to the Earth at a height h.
If, however, this body does not exist at a height h, then relation (54.4) is meaningless and the value of gF is inexistent and indeterminate.
Therefore, according to the EGT, we are never in a position to know a priori the intensity of the Earth’s gravitational field at a distance h (as is the case in Newtonian Mechanics), since we must obligatorily define a priori the body to which we are referring, which is found at a distance h and is being attracted to the Earth.
So, only if we place a body at a distance h, can we calculate a posteriori the intensity gF of the Earth’s electrogravitational field.
As it can be observed, this is also another basic difference between Newtonian Mechanics and the EGT.
The above conclusion will hereafter be called the “electrogravitational principle of indetermination”.
2. Electrogravitational center of mass
Let us assume (Fig. 4) that m0 is a pure mass, +Q a positive electric charge and –q a negative electric charge, with the following coordinates:
m0 (x1, y1, z1), +Q (x2, y2, z2) and –q (x3, y3, z3).
In order to calculate the coordinates xc, yc, zc of the electrogravitational centre of mass C of the three bodies m0, +Q and –q (Fig.4), we proceed as follows:
Calculation: Based on relation (23) (i.e. the relation of equivalence between the pure mass and the electric charge)
Based on relation (55), the positive electric charge +Q (Fig. 4) is equivalent to a pure mass m0΄:
where Q is a positive number.
Similarly, the negative electric charge –q (Fig. 4) is equivalent to a pure mass m0΄΄:
where q is a positive number.
Therefore, if in Fig. 4 we substitute the positive electric charge +Q for mass m0΄ from relation (56) and the negative electric charge –q for mass m0΄΄ from relation (57), then by applying the all-too-familiar method we can calculate the centre of mass C of the three masses m0, m0΄ and m0΄΄, whose coordinates are m0 (x1, y1, z1), m0΄ (x2, y2, z2) and m0΄΄
(x3, y3, z3) respectively.
These coordinates xc, yc, zc are the sought-for coordinates of the electrogravitational centre of mass C of the three bodies m0, +Q and –q from Fig. 4.
Here, it should be pointed out that the shape of bodies m0, +Q and –q may assume various geometric forms (circle, linear part, etc),
while their initial geometric form remains the same throughout the entire process described above.
PROBLEM OF THREE BODIES
Let us assume (Fig. 4) that m1, m2, m3 are three masses (as known to us from Newtonian Mechanics).
Mass m1 is made of Aluminum, mass m2 of Silver and mass m3 of Gold.
These three masses are at rest at time t = 0, and their coordinates are m1 (x1, y1, z1), m2 (x2, y2, z2) and m3 (x3, y3, z3).
We now let these three masses move under the influence of the force of universal attraction.
After a time t > 0 and on the
basis of the classical solution given to the “three-body problem”, these three masses will respectively follow three curved orbits C1, C2, C3.
What we are seeking is:
According to Newtonian Mechanics, what kind of orbits are C1, C2, C3 ?
According to the EGT laws, what kind of orbits are C1΄, C2΄, C3΄?
What is the difference between orbits C1, C2, C3 and C1΄, C2΄, C3΄?
Obviously, this is a very difficult problem, but is also a typical example which allows us to observe the difference that exists in various Physics problems between Newtonian Mechanics and EGT Mechanics.
Application: The above problem can be applied in the case of the Sun – Earth – Moon, where fS, fE, fM are the material constants of the Sun, Earth and Moon respectively.
THE FORCES OF NATURE
All forces of Nature are divided in two categories:
1. Real forces, and
2. Fictitious forces.
Real forces are attributed to the interaction (attractive and repulsive) of hylions, something which does not occur with fictitious forces.
Among nature’s real forces are for instance the gravitational, electric, electrogravitational, magnetic, electromagnetic forces, etc.
Conversely, fictitious forces are only the inertial forces, e.g. the centrifugal force, the Coriolis force, the force that appears in a
vehicle moving with linear acceleration, the force applied by our hand to a body A, etc.
The fundamental property between real and fictitious forces is that real forces are never converted into fictitious forces and vice versa.
In other words, real and fictitious forces always remain qualitatively unchangeable and one is never converted into the other under any circumstances and for any observer whatsoever.
Therefore, real and
fictitious forces are never equivalent. This implies that the fields of real forces are never equivalent to the fields of fictitious forces (that is, of the inertial forces), as Einstein erroneously holds, according to the “Equivalence Principle” of the General Theory of Relativity.
Finally, real forces are an immanent property of the bodies themselves (and especially of gravitons, positive and negative electrins making up bodies) and is not a property of the curved
space-time, as Einstein erringly asserts in the General Theory of Relativity.
ENERGY AND MOMENTUM
1. Kinetic energy
Let us assume that mu is a Newtonian mass:
mu = |m0| + |+q| + |–q| (58)
a. When Newtonian mass mu moves under the influence of inertial forces, then its kinetic energy Κ will be:
where v is the velocity of this mass.
b. Contrarily, now, when this Newtonian mass mu moves under the influence of real forces, then its kinetic energy is:
where vG is the velocity of the electrogravitational centre of mass of the Newtonian mass mu.
So, if for example a Newtonian mass mu is in free fall inside the gravitational field of
the Earth, its kinetic energy is given by relation (60).
As it can be observed, relations (59) and (60) which express the kinetic energy of a mass differ from the corresponding relations of Newtonian Mechanics.
Thus, by the EGT, in order to calculate the kinetic energy of a body A, we must know a priori whether these forces which cause body A to move are inertial or real forces.
Apparently, in the case of real forces,
in order to calculate the kinetic energy of body A, we will always have as reference the velocity vG of the electrogravitational centre of mass of this body Α.
We will hereafter call this process “tidal process”.
2. Potential energy.
Let us assume that there are two Newtonian masses:
Μu = |M0| + |+Q| + |–Q|
mu = |m0| + |+q| + |–q|
lying at a distance h from one another.
In this case, the potential energy U of the system of these two masses mu and Mu on the basis of what we discussed earlier is:
where h is the distance between the electrogravitational centre of mass mu and the electrogravitational centre of mass Mu.
Number GF is the factor of universal attraction (relation (45)) between these two attracting masses mu and Mu.
3. Conservation of energy
Let us assume that there are two Newtonian masses:
Μu = |M0| + |+Q| + |–Q|
mu = |m0| + |+q| + |–q|
lying at a distance h from one another.
Also, relative to an inertial observer (Ο) and at time t=0 these two masses are at rest. We now let these two masses move under the influence of the force of universal
Thus, the principle of conservation of energy will apply for these two masses as they move (t >0), namely:
Κ (kinetic energy) + U (potential energy) = Ε (total energy) (64)
where vG is the velocity of the electrogravitational centre of mass of the Newtonian mass mu.
VG is the velocity of the electrogravitational centre of mass of the Newtonian mass Mu, and h΄ is the distance between them at time t >0, where h΄< h.
According to the EGT, relation (65) expresses the principle of the conservation of energy of the two Newtonian masses mu and Μu.
4. Conservation of momentum
Similarly, the principle of conservation of momentum will apply for the two Newtonian masses mu and Μu mentioned above, i.e.:
According to the EGT, relation (66) expresses the principle of the conservation of momentum of the two Newtonian masses mu and Μu.
5. n-Body system
The kinetic energy, potential energy, the principle of conservation of energy and the principle of conservation of momentum discussed above with regard to the two Newtonian masses mu and Μu can also be applied in the same way to a closed system consisting of n bodies, where fi (i =1,2,3,...n) are the material constants of these bodies.
The material constants fi may be the same (if the n bodies have the same material composition) or different (if the n bodies are of a different material composition).
Therefore, once again we can detect the difference in final result between Newtonian Mechanics and EGT Mechanics.
FREE FALL OF BODIES
Let us assume (Fig. 5) that Mu is the Newtonian mass of the Earth:
Μu = |M0| + |+Q| + |–Q| (67)
We consider that the Earth is motionless relative to an inertial frame of reference O.XYZ.
We now take three equal masses A, B, C e.g. 1 Kgr 14Si28, 1 Kgr 13Al27 and 1 Kgr 79Au197 which we place at a height h, at rest, above the surface of the Earth.
We let these three equal masses Α, Β, C fall freely inside the Earth’s gravitational field.
The question that is being raised is the following:
At what velocity do these three equal masses A, B, C reach the surface of the Earth?
Here is the answer to this question:
According to the EGT and by applying the principle of conservation of energy referred to above, the velocities vG΄, vG΄΄, vG΄΄΄ at which these three masses A, B, C will reach the surface of the Earth are respectively the following:
where vG΄ is the velocity of 14Si28
vG΄΄ is the velocity of 13Al27
vG΄΄΄ is the velocity of 79Au197
(vG΄, vG΄΄, vG΄΄΄, are the velocities of the electrogravitational centre of mass of bodies A, B, C), and
gF΄ is the intensity of the Earth’s electrogravitational field at height h for 14Si28
gF΄΄ is the intensity of the Earth’s electrogravitational field at height h for 13Al27
gF΄΄΄ is the intensity of the Earth’s electrogravitational field at height h for 79Au197
As it is well known, on the basis of relation (11), the material constant fA of 14Si28 is:
Similarly, the material constant fB of 13Al27 is:
and the material constant fC of 79Au197 is:
where fH is the material constant of the Hydrogen atom.
As it can be observed in relations (71), (72), (73):
Therefore, based on relation (45)
where GF΄ is the factor of universal attraction, Earth – 14Si28 (76)
GF΄΄ is the factor of universal attraction, Earth – 13Al27 (77)
GF΄΄΄ is the factor of universal attraction, Earth – 79Au197 (78)
Moreover, on the basis of relation (53) and relations (76), (77) and (78)
Thus, from relation (79) and relations (68), (69) and (70) we obtain:
Consequently, based on relation (80) it can be observed that of the three equal masses A, B, C (Fig. 5) the first that will reach the surface of the Earth is the mass of 14Si28, the second is the mass of 13Al27 and the third is the mass of 79Au197.
Therefore, after everything analyzed above, the following basic conclusion is drawn:
According to the EGT, the velocity at which bodies fall inside the gravitational field of the Earth depends on the material composition of these bodies.
Evidently, this conclusion clashes with Newtonian Mechanics which states that the velocity of bodies falling inside the Earth’s gravitational field is independent of the material composition of these bodies.
The above conclusion is of major importance and has vast consequences on modern Physics, since it points to the following:
a. The result of Galileo’s experiment (experiment conducted from the Tower of Pisa) is utterly wrong, and
b. The “Equivalence Principle” of the General Theory of Relativity proves to be beyond any doubt an erroneous principle of physics.
ELECTROGRAVITATIONAL UNIT SYSTEM
The EGT uses the Electrogravitational unit system as the measurement system of various physical dimensions.
The basic dimensions of the EGS, are:
Pure mass m0
Electric charge q
Pure mass m0 is measured in gr0 (grams of pure mass); length ℓ is measured in cm, time t is measured in sec and electric charge q is measured in EGS units of electric charge.
Thus, a Newtonian mass mu is measured in gr0.
It should be noted that 1 gr0 of pure mass is the amount of pure mass contained in 1 cm3 of pure mass contained in 1 cm3 of liquid hydrogen.
Finally, based on the relations of the fundamental postulates of the EGT referred to above, one can find in the EGS unit system the units of other physical dimensions, such as force (dyn0), work (erg0), etc, as well as the units of the various EGT constants k0, τ0, G0, μ0 mentioned earlier.
The theoretical part of the EGT has been developed based on what has been discussed above (postulates, Laws, conclusions, etc).
If experimental research demonstrates the accuracy of the above theoretical conclusions, then beyond any doubt the entire science of physics since Galileo’s time to this day must be rewritten by resting on the new foundations laid by the EGT.
Copyright 2007: Christos A. Tsolkas Christos A. Tsolkas
March 17, 2007
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